Craniopharyngioma

Craniopharyngioma is the most common suprasellar tumour in children. This tumor arises from the remnants of Rathke's pouch (the ectodermal structure from which anterior pituitary gland is derived).

Morphology

It most commonly arises in the pituitary stalk and projects into hypothalamus.this is alocally invasive,large cystic tumuor with areas of calcification.Though histologically it is benign,clinically this is a malignant tumour.

Clinical features

Bimodal age distribution with the first peak in childhood (5 to 15 years) and the second peak in adults around thesixth decade.
The patients present with headache, vomiting, visual field abnormality (bitemporal hemianopia), personality change and cognitive disorders.

Treatment

Surgical excision(trans-sphenoidal endoscopic surgery).
Post operative external beam radiation or stereotaxic radiosurgery is added if total surgical removal cannot be achieved.



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