Pulmonology

CT Thorax

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RNTCP: Current guidelines, 2011

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Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis: An isolate of M.Tuberculosis resistant to at least INH and Rifampicin with or without other antitubercular drugs based on DST result from an RNTCP accredited culture and DST laboratory.
Tuberculin test/Mantoux test: A standard dose of 5 Tuberculin units (0.1 mL) is injected intradermally and the response read after 48 to 72 hours. A person who has been exposed to the bacteria is expected to mount an immune response in the form of induration and erythema at the site of injection. Induration more than 10mm can be considered significant.
The immune response in Tuberculin test is Type 4 reaction, i.e., delayed hypersensitivity.
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Pulmonary Embolism

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D-dimer is elevated in 90% of patients with Pulmonary embolism and Deep venous thrombosis.
In chest radiography, the Westermark sign represents a focus of oligemia seen distal to a pulmonary embolus.
Hampton's hump seen in pulmonary embolism, is a radiologic sign which consists of a shallow wedge-shaped opacity in the periphery of the lung with it's base against the pleural surface.
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