Obstetrics / Gynecology

Gestational Diabetes


Gestational Diabetes is the high blood sugar that starts or first diagnosed during pregnancy.Pregnacy hormones can block the insulin and thus glucose homoestasis is disturbed. When this happens glucose levels may increase in a pregnant woman's blood.

In order to keep the carbohydrate metabolism normal during pregnancy, the body has to make three times more insulin than normal.
Macrosomia is seen to occur in upto 40% of GDM offsprings.
American Diabetes Association
UK Diabetes

Prenatal genetic testing


Prenatal genetic testing- Chromosomaldisorders, Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization, Single gene disorders, Chorionic villus sampling, Amniocentesis and the future.


Endometriosis and Adenomyosis


Endometriosis, definition, pathology, aetiology , oestrogens and prostaglandins, retroversion, sites, mechanism of origin, symptoms- dysmenorrhoea, disorders of menstruation, dyspareunia, dyschezia, dull ache of abdomen. Physical signs, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, classification of endometriosis, treatment, surgical management of minimal endometriosis, medical management, combined medical and surgical therapy. Adenomyosis, adenomyosis treatment, cervical endometriosis


Drugs in pregnancy and teratogenicity


Prescribing for the pregnant, drug use in pregnancy ,teratogenicity, wilson’s 6 principles of teratogenesis, thalidomide catastrophe, Categories A, B, C, D, X, breast feeding and medication, drugs, retinoids, antineoplastics, anticonvulsants, anticoagulants, hormones, antibiotics, psychotropics, antifungals, antivirals, antiparasitics, cardiovascular drugs , asthma drugs, analgesics, thyroid drugs, vaccines, alcohol, smoking, coffee, conclusions.

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