Exotoxin producing Gram negative bacteria

 " C.D.E "

  • vibrio Cholera
  • shiga's Dysentery bacillus
  • Enterotoxigenic E.coli

 (Exotoxins are generally produced by gram +ve bacteria.) 


Helminths transmitted via Soil


  • Hookworm
  • Ascaris
  • Toxocaria

Alternatively, "I HATe soiled food!"


Toxin producing bacteria

"Say A.B.C.D.E "

  • Staphylococcus
  • pseudomonas Aeruginosa
  • Bordetella pertussis
  • vibrio Cholerae, Clostridium botulinum
  • Diptheria
  • E.coli

Typhoid (Enteric fever): Investigations


 Typhoid can be confirmed by various investigations and each of them becomes positive at various times in the course of the disease. This can be remembered as, BASU.


  • Blood culture in the 1st week (Bone marrow culture is better, but not commonly done)
  • Antibody detection (Widal) in 2nd week
  • Stool culture in the 3rd week
  • Urine culture in the 4th week



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