Endocrine system


Pheochromocytoma is a tumour of chromaffin cells.

Chromaffin cells secrete catecholamines.

Rule of 10

  • 10% familial (MEN 2, Neurofibromatosis etc)
  • 10% extra adrenal (mediastinum, heart, bladder wall)
  • 10% malignant


Clinical Features : 5P's

1. Pounding headache

2. Palpitations

3. Perspiration

4. Paroxysmal hypertension (usually)

5. Pain (abdominal pain)


Hypopituitarism (Simmond's disease):Clinical Features


Hypopituitarism is otherwise known as "SIMMOND'S" disease.


Addison's disease/ Hypoadrenalism


Features of Addison's disease can be remembered as  "SynACTHEN"


Eye signs in Thyroid disease

Eye signs in thyroid disease in the usual pattern of appearance can be remebered as,


  •  No signs or symptoms.
  •  Only signs of upperlid retraction and stare, with or without lid lag and exophthalmos
  •  Soft tissue involvement
  •  Proptosis
  •  Extraocular muscle involvement
  •  Corneal involvement
  •  Sight loss due to optic nerve involvement
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