Urology/ Nephrology

Secondary nephrotic syndrome: Causes

 " DAVID "

  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Amyloidosis
  • Vasculitis
  • Infections
  • Drugs
4

Nephrotic syndrome: Features

 " NEPHROTIC "

  • Na+ & water retention
  • Edema
  • Proteinuria > 3.5g/day
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Renal vein thrOmbosis
  • Thrombotic and thromboembolic complications
  • Infection with staph. N pneumococci
  • hyperCoagulable state
5

Consequences of chronic renal failure

" A.B.C.D.E.F.G "

Anemia

  • due to less EPO

Bone alterations

  • osteomalacia
  • osteoporosis
  • von Recklinghausen disease

Cardiopulmonary

  • atherosclerosis
  • CHF
  • hypertension -pericarditis

D vitamin loss

Electrolyte imbalance

  • sodium loss/gain
  • metabolic acidosis
  • hyperkalemia

Fever (i.e., infections)

5

Microorganisms causing UTI

"KEEPS"

  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • E.coli
  • Enterococcus faecalis/ Enterobacter cloacae
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa/ Proteus mirabilis
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus/ Serratia marcescens
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